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What is Chlorine Dioxide?

Chlorine Dioxide is a small, volatile molecule, that reacts with other substances by means of oxidation. It exists as a greenish gas at normal temperatures. Because it is a gas, chlorine dioxide cannot be safely transported in large quantities. Chlorine dioxide is usually generated on-site as needed by mixing precursor chemicals. 

Chlorine dioxide is used everyday in food service, municipal water, mold treatment, odor treatment, medical use, mouthwashes, toothpastes, eye-care, and personal water treatment products, among other applications.   It is also considered to be a more earth friendly alternative to many chlorine applications.

If it only exists as a gas how can I use it?

There are a couple ways. Because it is a gas, chlorine dioxide cannot be safely transported in large quantities. Chlorine dioxide is usually generated on-site as needed by mixing precursor chemicals. Industrial applications may use very strong acids, and chlorine to generate large quantities of gas.

What is the difference between 28% Sodium Chlorite and 22.4% sodium chlorite?

When people say 28%* Sodium Chlorite, they actually mean 22.4% Sodium Chlorite.

Anhydrous Sodium Chlorite Flakes or Powder is the raw material used to make the solution.. It is shipped and sold as Technical Grade Sodium Chlorite at 80% purity.The remaining 20% are buffers such as, Sodium Chloride (common salt), Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Hydroxide, Sodium Sulfate and leftover Sodium Chlorate from the manufacturing process.

You cannot acquire pure sodium chlorite. It is too unstable, and extremely dangerous to handle. I have seen 90% Sodium Chlorite from China, but it is industrial grade, and no regulation as to heavy metals or chlorate content.

When you combine the water and the 80% sodium chlorite flakes at a w/w (weight to weight) ratio of 28% Sodium Chlorite and 72% distilled water, the resulting solution will contain 22.4% actual sodium chlorite, 5.6% buffer ingredients, and 72% water. The total of the actual dissolved solids are 22.4% NaClO2 + 5.6% Inert Buffers which equals 28% total dissolved solids in the solution. 

In other words, what is commonly mislabeled as 28% sodium chlorite is actually 22.4% sodium chlorite.

Chlorine Dioxide vs Chlorine: What's the difference?

 Chlorine Dioxide has a lower oxidation strength than chlorine, but more than twice the oxidative capacity.  Reduction/Oxidation Strength or "Redox" is a measure of how strongly an oxidizer reacts with with organic material, the higher the redox potential, the more substances the oxidizer will react with. Chlorine Dioxide has a lower redox potential than ozone, chlorine, or hypochlorus acid.  Because of this lower redox potential, Chlorine DIoxide is more selective in what it reacts to.
 Typically Chlorine DIoxide will only react with compounds that have active carbon bonds, sulfides, cyanides, and compounds with reduced iron or manganese. Chlorine has a higher redox, and will react with a wider range of compounds, including ammonia.  Because of this difference Chlorine DIoxide does not create toxic by products like chlorine does. This is why Chlorine is limited as a biocide in it's overall effectiveness as opposed to Chlorine DIoxide.
 The higher oxidation capacity means that Chlorine Dioxide will remove 5 electrons from the target, whereas chlorine replaces 2.  Chlorine will bind to a pathogen, and other chemicals and compunds that may be present.  Chlorine DIoxide being more selective, will not  bind with other compounds.  Because of this capacity, Chlorine Dioxide is more efficient than Chlorine, Ozone, or Hypochlorus Acid when used as a disinfectant.
 After the reaction is complete, Chlorine Dioxide reverts to chloride (salt). Chlorine forms Tri-halomathanes from reaction to ammonia, plus other byproducts from other chemicals and compounds as may be present.


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